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PUBLICATIONS BY CM SOLUTIONS

BOOKS

CRUNDWELL, F.K. Finance for Engineers – Evaluation and funding of capital projects. Springer UK, 2008.

 

 

 

Customer reviews from www.amazon.com can be found at http://amzn.to/1QPWaB0
 
“Frank has managed something extraordinary in writing this book, he has taken the inner workings of a critical industry and made them easily understandable to Engineers. The clarity gained from reading and referring to this book has ensured the work I do as an engineer is more relevant, effective and fulfilling!”  by @Marc Nicolle

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Frank K.Crundwell, Michael S.Moats, Venkoba Ramachandran, Timothy G. Robinson, William G. Davenport. Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum-Group Metals. Elsevier. 2011.

 

 

 

Customer review from www.amazon.com 

“So much useful information packed into a book. If you're looking for a book on the extractive metallurgy of nickel, cobalt or platinum group metals, this is the book for you. So much useful information packed into a book” http://amzn.to/1QPX7JP

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REFEREED JOURNAL ARTICLES

Acid mine drainage

Holmes, P.R., CRUNDWELL, F.K. The kinetics of the oxidation of pyrite by ferric ions and dissolved oxygen: An electrochemical study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64 (2000) 263-274 Download
Holmes, P.R., CRUNDWELL, F.K. Kinetic aspects of galvanic interactions between minerals during dissolution , Hydrometallurgy, 39 (1995) 353-375. Download
L.J. Bryson, F.K.  Crundwell. The anodic dissolution of pyrite in hydrochloric acid solutions. Hydrometallurgy, 43 (2014) 42-53 Download

Bacterial leaching

CRUNDWELL, F.K. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Bacterial Leaching Reactors. Bioengineering and Biotechnology 71 (2001) 255-265 Download
Fowler, T.A., Holmes, P.R., and CRUNDWELL, F.K. On the Kinetics and Mechanism of the Dissolution of Pyrite in the Presence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Hydrometallurgy 59 (2001)257-270. Download
Crundwell, F.K., Process performance of bacterial leaching reactors: the contribution of mathematical modelling. J. South African IMM, 100 (7), Nov./Dec. 2000 Download
Crundwell, F.K., Holmes, P.R. and Fowler, T.A., How do bacteria interact with minerals? J. South African IMM, 100 (7), Nov./Dec. 2000 Download

Fowler, T.A., Holmes, P.R., CRUNDWELL, F.K. Mechanism of pyrite dissolution in the presence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65 (1999) 2987-2993.

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Holmes, P.R., Fowler, T.A., CRUNDWELL, F.K. The mechanism of the bacterial leaching of pyrite: an electrochemical study. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 146 (1999) 2906-2912.

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Fowler, T.A., CRUNDWELL, F.K. Leaching of zinc sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Bacterial oxidation of the sulfur product layer increases the rate of zinc sulfide dissolution at high concentrations of ferrous ions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65 (1999) 5285-5292. Download
Fowler, T.A., CRUNDWELL, F.K. The leaching of sphalerite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Experiments at controlled redox potentials indicate that there is no direct mechanism of bacterial action. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64 (1998) 3570-3575.  
CRUNDWELL, F.K. The kinetics of the chemiosmotic proton circuit of the iron-oxidising bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 43 (1997) 115-122. Download
Harvey, P.I. and CRUNDWELL, F.K. Growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: A novel experimental design for batch growth and bacterial leaching studies. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63 (1997) 2586-2592.  Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K. The formation of biofilms of iron-oxidising bacteria on pyrite, Minerals Engineering, 9 (1996) 1081-1089. Download

Harvey, P.I., CRUNDWELL, F.K. The effect of As(III) on the growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in an electrolytic cell under controlled redox potentials, Minerals Engineering, 9 (1996) 1059-1068.

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CRUNDWELL, F.K. Mathematical modelling of batch and continuous bacterial leaching, The Chemical Engineering Journal and Biochemical Engineering Journal, 54 (1994) 207-220. Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The indirect mechanism of material leaching. Min.Pro.Ext.Met.Rev., Vol. 19. pp. (1998) 117-128.

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Crundwell, F.K. How do bacteria interact with minerals, Hydrometallurgy, 71 (2003) 75-81

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Corrosion

CRUNDWELL, F.K., The anodic dissolution of copper in hydrochloric acid solutions, Electrochimica Acta, 37 (1992) 2707-2714. Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K., A model for the ac-impedance of an electrode coated by a precipitated salt film, Electrochimica Acta, 36 (1991) 1183-1189. Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K., The anodic dissolution of 90 Cu - 10 Ni alloy in hydrochloric acid solutions, Electrochimica Acta, 36 (1991) 2135-2141. Download
Dissolution
CRUNDWELL, F.K., The influence of the electronic structure of solids on the anodic dissolution and leaching of semiconducting sulphide minerals, Hydrometallurgy, 21 (1988) 155-190. Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K., Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidative dissolution of a zinc sulphide concentrate in ferric sulphate solutions, Hydrometallurgy, 19 (1987) 227-242. Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K. , VERBAAN, B. Kinetics and Mechanisms of the Non-oxidative Dissolution of Sphalerite (Zinc Sulphide), Hydrometallurgy, 17 (1987) 369-384 Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K., The anodic dissolution of 90 Cu - 10 Ni alloy in hydrochloric acid solutions, Electrochimica Acta, 36 (1991) 2135-2141. Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K., The anodic dissolution of copper in hydrochloric acid solutions, Electrochimica Acta, 37 (1992) 2707-2714. Download
Holmes, P.R., CRUNDWELL, F.K. Kinetic aspects of galvanic interactions between minerals during dissolution , Hydrometallurgy, 39 (1995) 353-375. Download
BRYSON, L.J., CRUNDWELL, F.K. The anodic dissolution of pyrite in hydrochloric acid solutions.  Hydrometallurgy, 43 (2014) 42-53 Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K., Refractory behaviour of two sphalerite concentrates to dissolution in ferric sulphate solutions, Hydrometallurgy, 19 (1987) 253-258. Download
Fowler, T.A., Holmes, P.R., and CRUNDWELL, F.K. On the Kinetics and Mechanism of the Dissolution of Pyrite in the Presence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Hydrometallurgy 59 (2001)257-270. Download
Fowler, T.A., Holmes, P.R., CRUNDWELL, F.K. Mechanism of pyrite dissolution in the presence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65 (1999) 2987-2993. Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K., Effect of iron impurity in zinc sulphide concentrates on the rate of dissolution, AIChE Journal, 34 (1988) 1128-1134. Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K. The dissolution and leaching of minerals.  Mechanisms, myths and misunderstandings. Hydrometallurgy, 139 (2013) 132-148 Download
F.K. Crundwell.  The mechanism of dissolution of forsterite olivine and minerals of the orthosilicate group. Hydrometallurgy, 150 (2014) 68-82 Download
L.J. Bryson, F.K. Crundwell. Anodic dissolution of pyrite (FeS2) in hydrochloric acid solutions.  Hydrometallurgy, 143 (2014) 42-53 Download
F.K.Crundwell. The mechanism of dissolution of minerals in acidic and alkaline solutions. Part I, II and III listed below:
 
F.K.Crundwell. The mechanism of dissolution of minerals in acidic and alkaline solutions:  Part I - A new theory of non-oxidation dissolution. Hydrometallurgy, 149 (2014) 252-264
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F.K.Crundwell. The mechanism of dissolution of minerals in acidic and alkaline solutions:  Part II - Application of a new theory to silicates, aluminosilicates and quartz. Hydrometallurgy, 149 (2014) 265-275 Download
F.K.Crundwell. The mechanism of dissolution of minerals in acidic and alkaline solutions:  Part III - Application to oxide, hydroxide and sulphide minerals. Hydrometallurgy, 149 (2014) 71-81 Download
Electrolysis processes  
Charalambous, H., Bryson, A.W., CRUNDWELL, F.K. A fundamental adsorption and electrochemical model for predicting the properties of EMD. Progress in Batteries and Battery Materials 16 (1997) 159-167.  
Ichharam, V., Levendis, D.C., Bryson, A.W., CRUNDWELL, F.K. The effect of K+ on the physical and structural properties of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD). Progress in Batteries and Battery Materials 16 (1997) 98-104.  
Mauthoor, M., Bryson, A.W., and CRUNDWELL, F.K. Properties of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide produced at elevated temperatures and pressures. Progress in Batteries and Battery Materials 16 (1997) 105-109.
 
Gold processing  
CRUNDWELL, F.K., Godorr, S.A. Mathematical modelling of the leaching of gold from ores, Hydrometallurgy, 44 (1997) 147-162.  
CRUNDWELL, F.K. and Jensen, J.O. An amperometric instrument for the determination of cyanide on gold plants, Journal of S.A. Inst. Min. Metall., 94 (1994) 103-108. Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K., An amperometric method for the determination of cyanide in gold process streams and slurries, Hydrometallurgy, 27 (1991) 19-28. Download

Leaching

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The Leaching Number:its definition and use in determining the performance of leaching reactors and autoclaves. Mineral Engineering in press 2005.

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CRUNDWELL, F.K., Effect of iron impurity in zinc sulphide concentrates on the rate of dissolution, AIChE Journal, 34 (1988) 1128-1134. Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The dissolution and leaching of minerals.   Mechanisms, myths and misunderstandings. Hydrometallurgy, 139 (2013) 132-148

Download

L.J. Bryson, F.K.  Crundwell. The anodic dissolution of pyrite in hydrochloric acid solutions. Hydrometallurgy, 43 (2014) 42-53

Download

F.K. Crundwell.  The mechanism of dissolution of forsterite olivine and minerals of the orthosilicate group. Hydrometallurgy, 150 (2014) 68-82

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Pressure leaching autoclaves

CRUNDWELL, F.K. Progress in the mathematical modelling of leaching reactors. Hydrometallurgy, 39   (1995) 321-335. Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K. Micro-mixing in continuous particulate reactors, Chemical Engineering Science, 49 (1994) 3887-3896.

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CRUNDWELL, F.K. and Bryson, A.W., The modelling of particulate leaching reactors - the population balance approach, Hydrometallurgy, 29 (1992) 275-295. Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K., The influence of the electronic structure of solids on the anodic dissolution and leaching of semiconducting sulphide minerals, Hydrometallurgy, 21 (1988) 155-190.

Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K. and Verbaan, B., Kinetics and mechanism of the non-oxidative dissolution of sphalerite, Hydrometallurgy, 17 (1987) 369-384.

Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K., Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidative dissolution of a zinc sulphide concentrate in ferric sulphate solutions, Hydrometallurgy, 19 (1987) 227-242.

Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K., Refractory behaviour of two sphalerite concentrates to dissolution in ferric sulphate solutions, Hydrometallurgy, 19 (1987) 253-258.

Download

Verbaan, B. and CRUNDWELL, F.K., An electrochemical model for the leaching of a sphalerite concentrate, Hydrometallurgy, 16 (1986) 345-359.

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CRUNDWELL, F.K. du Preez, N.Lloyd, J.M. Dynamics of particle-size distributions in continuous leaching reactors and autoclaves, Hydrometallurgy, 133 (2013) 44-50.

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Process Modelling

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The Leaching Number:its definition and use in determining the performance of leaching reactors and autoclaves. Mineral Engineering in press 2005. Download
CRUNDWELL, F.K. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Bacterial Leaching Reactors. Bioengineering and Biotechnology 71 (2001) 255-265 Download
Crundwell, F.K., Process performance of bacterial leaching reactors: the contribution of mathematical modelling. J. South African IMM, 100 (7), Nov./Dec. 2000 Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K. Progress in the mathematical modelling of leaching reactors. Hydrometallurgy, 39   (1995) 321-335.

Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K. Mathematical modelling of batch and continuous bacterial leaching, The Chemical Engineering Journal and Biochemical Engineering Journal, 54 (1994) 207-220.

Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K. Micro-mixing in continuous particulate reactors, Chemical Engineering Science, 49 (1994) 3887-3896.

Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K. and Bryson, A.W., The modelling of particulate leaching reactors - the population balance approach, Hydrometallurgy, 29 (1992) 275-295.

Download

CRUNDWELL, F.K., Godorr, S.A. Mathematical modelling of the leaching of gold from ores, Hydrometallurgy, 44 (1997) 147-162.

 

CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

Crundwell, F.K. The physical chemistry of bacterial leaching. In: Rawlings, D.E. (ed.) Biomining. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Germeny 1997. Chapter 9, Pages 177-200.

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CONFERENCE PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS

Conference papers

CRUNDWELL, F.K. and Bryson, A.W. The modelling of particulate leaching reactors -   the population balance approach, Presented at the Ernest Peters Syposium on Hydrometallurgy - Theory and Practice, Vancouver, B.C., June 1992. (see 10 above)

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The modelling of leaching reactors, Presented at the Liquid Air Symposium on Gold Leaching, Sabi Sabi, June 1992.

 

Stange, W.W. and CRUNDWELL, F.K. The simulation and control of gold leaching circuits, Presented at the Liquid Air Symposium on Gold Leaching, Sabi Sabi, June 1992.

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The development of a cyanide meter, Presented at Mining Mechanization and Technology, Midrand, 9-11 March 1994.

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The prediction of the bioleaching of refractory gold ores in a continuous plant from the batch data, Minerals Bioprocessing II, Snowbird, Utah, 10-15 July, 1994, TMS, pp 17-39.

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The modelling of leaching reactions and leaching reactors. Presented at the S.A. Inst. Min. Metall. Hydrometallurgy School, Randburg, 27-29 July 1994.

 

Bryson, L.J. and CRUNDWELL, F.K. Electrochemical aspects of pyrite dissolution in chloride media using chlorine gas. Presented at 7th National meeting of the S.A. Institution of Chemical Engineers, Esselen Park, 22-24 August 1994.

 

Holmes, P.R. and CRUNDWELL, F.K. Galvanic interactions between minerals during dissolution. Presented at 7th National meeting of the S.A. Institution of Chemical Engineers, Esselen Park, 22-24 August 1994.

 

Knottenbelt, P.R. and CRUNDWELL, F.K. Modelling of carbon-in-pulp processes using population balance techniques. Presented at 7th National meeting of the S.A. Institution of Chemical Engineers, Esselen Park, 22-24 August 1994.

 

Gnoinski, J., CRUNDWELL, F.K., and Orchard, S.W. Oxide film formation studies on aluminium using the quartz crystal microbalance. Presented at the 7th International Syposium on Passivity - Passivation of Metals and Semiconductors, Technical University of Claustal, Germany, 21-26 August 1994.

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The formation of biofilms of iron-oxidizing bacteria on pyrite. Presented at 14th Annual Mineral Processing Symposium, Somerset West, South Africa, 3-4 August, 1995.

 

Fowler, T.A., Claasen, R., Hansford, G.S. and CRUNDWELL, F.K. Ferric leaching of zinc from sphalerite at controlled redox potentials. Presented at 14th Annual Mineral Processing Symposium, Somerset West, South Africa, 3-4 August, 1995.

 

Harvey, P.I. and CRUNDWELL, F.K. The growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria in an electrolytic cell under controlled redox potentials. Presented at 14th Annual Mineral Processing Symposium, Somerset West, South Africa, 3-4 August, 1995.

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. Progress in the mathematical modelling of leaching reactors. Presented at the International Symposium on Leaching, Winnipeg, Canada, October, 1995. (See 16 above).

 

Holmes, P.R., CRUNDWELL, F.K. Galvanic interactions during leaching. Presented at the International Symposium on Leaching, Winnipeg, Canada, October, 1995. (See 15 above).

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. Mathematical modelling and optimization of bacterial leaching plants. Biohydrometallurgical Processing, Volume 1, Proceedings of the International Biohydrometallurgical Symposium IBS-95, Vina del Mar, Chile, 19-22 November 1995, pp 437-446.

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The formation of biofilms on pyrite. Presented at Biotech 96, Falmouth, Cornwall, April 1996. (See 17 above).

 

Harvey, P. I., CRUNDWELL, F.K. The effect of As(III) on the growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Presented at Biotech 96, Falmouth, Cornwall, April 1996. (See 18 above).

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K., Holmes, P.R., Harvey, P.I. Electrochemistry in Bacterial Leaching. In: Woods, R. Doyle, F.M., and Richardson, P.E. Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of Electrochemistry in Minerals and Metals Processing, The Electrochemistry Society, NJ, 1996. pp 239-250.

 

Mughogho, D., CRUNDWELL, F.K. Gold dissolution in dilute cyanide solutions. In: Woods, R. Doyle, F.M., and Richardson, P.E. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Electrochemistry in Mineral and Metal Processing, The Electrochemistry Society, NJ, 1996. pp 275-283.

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The role of iron in bacterial leaching. Presented at Minerals Bioprocessing III, Big Sky, Montana, August 1996.

 

Charalambous, H., Bryson, A.W., CRUNDWELL, F.K. A fundamental adsorption and electrochemical model for predicting the properties of EMD. Progress in Batteries and Battery Materials 16 (1997) 159-167. Presented at Batteries and Battery Materials, Tucson, Arizona, October 1996.

 

Ichharam, V., Levendis, D.C., Bryson, A.W., CRUNDWELL, F.K. The effect of K+ on the physical and structural properties of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD). Progress in Batteries and Battery Materials 16 (1997) 98-104. Presented at Batteries and Battery Materials, Tucson, Arizona, October 1996.

 

Mauthoor, M., Bryson, A.W., and CRUNDWELL, F.K. Properties of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide produced at elevated temperatures and pressures. Progress in Batteries and Battery Materials 16 (1997) 105-109. Presented at Batteries and Battery Materials, Tucson, Arizona, October 1996.

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The kinetics of the growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on ferrous ions. Presented at Biotech SA 97, Grahamstown, January 1997.

 

Asamoah-Bekoe, Y., and CRUNDWELL, F.K. The leaching of a platinum metal concentrate using chlorine gas. Presented at Complex Ores 97, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, March 1997.

 

Charalambous, H., Bryson, A.W., CRUNDWELL, F.K. A model for predicting the properties of electrolytic manganese dioxide. Extractive Metallurgy Africa '97, SAIMM, Randburg, 1997.

 

Driessens, Y.P.M., Fowler, T.A., CRUNDWELL, F.K. A comparison of the bacterial and chemical leaching of sphalerite at the same solution conditions. Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Towards the mining of the 21st Century. Part, Proceedings of the International Biohydrometallurgical Symposium IBS-99, Madrid, Spain, 20-23 June 1999, pp 201-208.

 

Howard, D., CRUNDWELL, F.K. A kinetic study of the leaching of chalcopyrite with Sulfolobus metallicus. Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Towards the mining of the 21st Century. Part, Proceedings of the International Biohydrometallurgical Symposium IBS-99, Madrid, Spain, 20-23 June 1999, pp 209-217.

 

Fowler, T.A., CRUNDWELL, F.K. The role of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in the bacterial leaching of zinc sulphide. Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Towards the mining of the 21st Century. Part, Proceedings of the International Biohydrometallurgical Symposium IBS-99, Madrid, Spain, 20-23 June 1999, pp 273-282.

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. Modelling, simulation and optimisation of leaching reactors. Presented at Leaching Science and Technology: Current Status and Future Directions, Parker Centre Hydrometallurgy Conference, 10-12th October, 1999, Perth, Western Australia.

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K., Holmes, P.R., and Fowler, T.A. How do bacteria interact with minerals? Presented at Colloquim on Bacterial Oxidation for the Recovery of Metals, SAIMM, 4 July 2000.

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. How do bacteria interact with minerals? Invited presented International Biohydrometallurgical Symposium, IBS 2001, Ouro Preto, Brazil

 

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The performance of pressure, atmospheric, and bacterial leaching reactors. International Biohydrometallurgical Symposium, IBS 2005, Cape Town South Africa

 

GERICKE, M., MULLER, H., NEALE, J., NORTON, A., CRUNDWELL, F.K. Inoculation of heap leaching operations. International Biohydrometallurgical Symposium, IBS 2005, Cape Town South Africa

 
Reports

CRUNDWELL, F.K. The effect of flocculant additions to the leaching solution on the kinetics of the oxidative dissolution of sphalerite. Report M298, Feb. 1987, Mintek, Randburg.

 
Popular Reports  

Jobson, M.R., and CRUNDWELL, F.K. Research in Chemical Engineering at Wits, Fulcrum, 1995.

 
Patents  

CRUNDWELL, F.K. Determining cyanide concentrations. South African Patent No. 91/6508. Australian Patent No 656899.